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Biological Factors of Diabetes: Fawad Aly Shah

BiologicalReady

Will I live same way as before?

That is the very next question when a doctor usually hears when he tells a patient “you have diabetes”. Then come other important question. Will I be able to keep on working? Will I have to change my way of life? Give the benefits of modern treatment; the diabetic can live a normal life in every aspect. He can work, play and live a healthy life. He does almost everything the non-diabetic can do. But first, he must learn to live with hisfawad-aly-shah disease. He should be able to distinguish medical facts from popular gimmicks, prejudice from sound practice. Knowing these things, he will be better able to walk with his disease every day of life.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease. It is not caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microbes. In diabetics, the diabetic is unable to use the carbohydrates he eats – the sugars and starches and turn them into heat and energy his body needs to operate normally.

Although diabetes is one of the oldest disease known to man. Almost 3500 years ago, a medical scribe of ancient Egypt describes the disease in a manuscript now known as the Ebers papyrus. 

Physicians of ancient Greece also knew about this disease and it was they who named it diabetes.

In every case of diabetes there does seem to be some impairment of the insulin mechanism-either in its production or the way it works in the body. There are at least five biological factors which may interfere with normal insulin activity and thus produce diabetes:-

1.There may be an inability on the part of the beta cells of the pancreas to produce enough insulin because the pancreas is diseased.

2.There may be an increase in the rate at which the body uses up insulin. This may be caused by overeating or by over activity of thyroid gland. Where this creates an insulin shortage, diabetes results.

3.There may be an increase in the rate at which insulin is destroyed in the body. There may be a drop in insulin production, or its effects might be inhibited by the action of certain body chemicals. There chemicals include such enzymes as insulinase as well as insulin antibodies and certain proteins which attach themselves to insulin and inactivate it. 

4.There may be drop in the efficiency of insulin due to the introduction of certain chemicals which restrain insulin activity. These include cortisone and its derivatives, ACTH, purified growth hormone, isonicotinic hydrazine and large doses of nicotinic acid.

5.In the alpha cells of the pancreas, the body produce a hormone which has an effect opposite to that if insulin. This substance is called glucagon, and it acts to release glucose from the liver into the blood, normally glycogen might thus help the individual survive during periods of starvation. However, the release of abnormally large amounts of glucagon appears to have a role in diabetes. 

6.The delta cells of the pancreas release a hormone called somatostatin which is also produced by the hypothalamus, at the base of the brain. This hormone maintains a balance between insulin and glucagon. By the upsetting of this balance diabetes may occur.

7.Viruses may have a role in causing some diabetes. Scientist has shown that certain viruses can damage the insulin producing beta cells. So it may cases diabetes also.

Any or all of these factors, may bring at the set of symptoms we call diabetes.

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