Diabetic foot ulcer is a sore or an open wound that occurs in approximately 15% people who have diabetes. They occur commonly at the bottom of the feet and they can pass from feet to bones. Out of 15 patients, 6% people will lead to hospitalized due to ulcer related complication. Foot ulcers are one of the complication of diabetes. They develop as a result of breakdown of skin tissues and showing up underneath skin layers. All patients can acquire foot ulcers and foot pain but good management of diabetes and foot care can prevent them.
The first sign is that foot ulcer might be paint your sock or leak into your shoes. Irritation, unusual swelling, odors and redness from one or both feet are early signs of foot ulcer. Black tissue (eschar) which surrounds the ulcer is the most prominent sign of ulcer. This is because of less blood flow to the area around the ulcer. Tissue death may occur due to complete and partial gangrene around ulcer. In this pain, numbness and odors discharge may occur from an infected area. Talk to your doctor if you feel any discoloration or pain around the irritated area. Ulcer can be categorize on the basis of scale.
0= no ulcer but feet at risk
1= ulcer present but no infection
2: ulcer deep, exposing joints and tendons
3: extensive ulcers or abscesses from infection
Causes and Reasons
Ulcers are caused by
- High blood pressure
- Nerve damage
- Poor blood circulation
- Wounded and irritated feet
Risk factor for diabetic foot
All people who have diabetes are at risk of developing foot ulcers Some factors can enhance the risk of foot ulcer.
- Alcohol intake
- Heart disease
- Kidney disease
- Improper shoes fitting
- Tobacco intake
Treating diabetic foot ulcer
You have to use certain things for the prevention of diabetic foot.
- Foot braces
- Wearing of shoes to prevent calluses and corns
- Diabetic medicated shoes
- Compression wraps
By using these things infections can be prevented
- Cleansing of feet properly.
- Keep your ulcer dry by changing dressing frequently.
- Calcium alginate should b in dressing to inhibit bacterial growth
- Enzymes treatment
After anti pressure and preventive treatment, doctor may prescribe you antiplatelet, anti-biotic and anti clotting medication to treat foot ulcer.
Preventing diabetic foot:
According to American Podiatric medical association about 14-24% have amputation who have diabetes diabetic foot problems can be prevented by
- Wash your feet regularly
- Equally trimmed your nails not too short
- Keep your feet moisturized and dry
- For callus and corn removal seeing your podiatrist
- Change your socks regularly
- Wearing fitted shoes
After the treatment, foot ulcer might be develop again. If the area gets irritated again, scar tissue can infected so doctor said patient should wear socks for the prevention of diabetic foot u8lcer.