Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic syndrome that affect the ability of female to produce an egg. It is associated with high level insulin which is more common in type 2 diabetics.
What is PCOS?
PCOS is a metabolic syndrome that effect the ovaries of female to produce a number of cyst on the surface of ovaries. The cyst contain follicles which is responsible for the irregular period. PCOS prevent the release of egg from ovaries. In PCOS suffered female, male hormones is more than usual.
PCOS is a condition which can be treated and healthy life style is a important part of this.
Symptoms of PCOS:
The PCOS patients may have one or more following symptoms :
- Loss or Irregular periods
- Hair growth on different body parts
- Weight gain
- Loss or thinning of hairs.
Causes of PCOS:
Weight gain and insulin resistance are two major factors of PCOS. Hyperinsulinemia occur as a result of insulin resistance which leads to high testosterone level which can alter the normal ovulation.
High level of insulin can cause weight gain which is linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCOS. All women’s produced testosterone in a very little amount but in PCOD level of this hormone increase than usual.
Diagnosis of PCOS:
Two or more following conditions may leads to PCOS
- Failure in release of egg.
- Small number of cyst developed around the ovaries
- High level of male hormones (testosterone) than usual in female
Diagnosis of PCOS involves many tests which include blood pressure, blood test and ultrasound scan.
NICE guidelines suggested to screen the PCOS patients for risk of type2 diabetes mellitus.
- Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus
- BMI is greater than 30kg/m2
- If diabetes in pregnancy has occurred ( gestational diabetes)
Treatment for PCOS:
Treatment of PCOS is the name of lifestyle change. Lifestyle change will help to improve the insulin levels and help in weight loss, acne and hair growth.
The medicine which is prescribed for type 2 diabetic patients is Metformin. If hormones are not work properly, then anti-androgen and oral contraceptive pills will be advised.
Treatment of infertility:
A low carbohydrate diet will help to reduce the insulin level. This will ultimately help in weight loss and improves the other symptoms of PCOS.
Fertility problems can also be improved by following medicines.
- To induced ovulation chlomifene medication is use.
- To restore ovulation, laparoscopic ovarian drilling is used.
If above treatments are not appropriate hen intro vitro fertilization (IVF) may be used.